In the last post I loaded in some data from a BDF file and showed how to re-reference and high-pass filter it.
Normally when running an EEG data we’ll have periods of interest that we want to extract from the recording, typically using triggers sent via a parallel cable or similar.
A Biosemi system can record up to 16 trigger inputs, representing the resulting numbers as 16-bit (i.e from 0-65535 coded in binary format). The status channel actually uses 24-bits, with the bits above 16 used for things like signalling that the battery is low or that the signal from CMS is in or out of range. The triggers I used were all in the range 0-256, since they were sent using the parallel port - the parallel port only uses 8-bits for sending data. Thus the format of the triggers in the recording does not necessarily correspond to the format of the triggers you sent. All we need to do is a modulo operation (%% in R) to get the remainder after dividing by 65536, and we have our original trigger numbers back.
##  -6750208 -6749955 -6815744 -6815728 -6815644 -6815743 -6815730 ##  -6815732 -6815616 -6815740 -6815742 -6815734 -6815741
unique(data_df$Status) %% (256*256)
##  0 253 0 16 100 1 14 12 128 4 2 10 3
Let’s replace the status column with sensible triggers. In reality it’s probably also best to have the Status channel split off, rather than duplicating it for every channel in a long format representation, or to just treat it as another channel. I won’t bother with either of those things here though. Let’s also plot part of our Status channel to get a feel for the structure of the events.
avg_ref$Status <- avg_ref$Status %% (256*256) avg_ref %>% rowid_to_column("Samp_No") %>% dplyr::filter(Samp_No >= 2000 & Samp_No <= 50000) %>% ggplot(aes(x = Samp_No, y= Status, colour = Status))+ geom_point()
A couple of things you might notice are all the zeros along the bottom and that the triggers are usually a run of points, rather than one single point. When you send a trigger, you are essentially flipping a switch that stays up until it’s switched down again. Really we want to only keep the first trigger in a chain.
If we take the difference of each consecutive value in the status channel, we end up with a vector which is set to zero when there is no change, a positive number when there is an increase (trigger onset), and a negative number when there is a decrease (trigger offset). Using the which() command, I find the index of the trigger onsets in the difference vector, and add 1 to it to account for the differencing operation.
events_diff <- diff(avg_ref$Status) event_table <- data.frame(event_onset = which(events_diff > 0)+1, event_type = avg_ref$Status[which(events_diff > 0)+1]) head(event_table,10)
## event_onset event_type ## 1 966 253 ## 2 6111 16 ## 3 7399 100 ## 4 8851 1 ## 5 10234 14 ## 6 11569 100 ## 7 12774 1 ## 8 14115 12 ## 9 15826 128 ## 10 16977 4
I now have a table giving the onset time (in samples) of each trigger in the data, and the type of each trigger. I have validated these against the same file imported in EEGLAB.
Now I’ll plot some data with vertical lines added when each trigger occurs, with the lines coloured and labelled according to which trigger type they were.
filt_dat %>% dplyr::filter(Samp_No <= 15000 & !(electrode == "EXG7"| electrode == "EXG8")) %>% ggplot(aes(x = Samp_No, y = filt_amp, colour = electrode)) + geom_line(alpha = 0.5) + geom_vline(xintercept = event_table[event_table$event_onset <= 15000, ]$event_onset, linetype = "dashed", colour = event_table[event_table$event_onset <= 15000, ]$event_type) + scale_x_continuous(sec.axis = sec_axis(trans = ~., breaks = event_table[event_table$event_onset <= 15000,]$event_onset, labels = event_table[event_table$event_onset <= 15000,]$event_type))
Suppose now we want to form epochs around one of the triggers; around, say, trigger 100. These epochs should start 200 ms before the trigger until 500 ms after it.
First we create a vector of samples the cover the time range around our time-locking event.
lower_lim <- -.2 upper_lim <- .5 samps <- seq(round(lower_lim * 1024), round(upper_lim * (1024-1))) samps[1:10]
##  -205 -204 -203 -202 -201 -200 -199 -198 -197 -196
Then we can create our epochs by choosing the time-locking events from the event table we made earlier. Those will be the zero point in our epochs, and are coded as the sample number in the original dataset. We then take our sample vector created in the last code chunk and add that vector to our vector of time-locking events. Here I use map to step through each item in the vector and output a list containing the sample numbers for each epoch. I then pass that list down and create a dataframe of the sample numbers for each epoch, the times those points convert into relative to our timelocking event, and an epoch number for each epoch. Finally, I join that up with our filtered, average referenced continuous data, picking out only those timepoints that belong to one of our epochs.
## # A tibble: 27,574,272 x 4 ## electrode filt_amp Samp_No Status ## <chr> <dbl> <int> <dbl> ## 1 F5 5.330647 1 0 ## 2 F5 8.205413 2 0 ## 3 F5 7.377853 3 0 ## 4 F5 5.913075 4 0 ## 5 F5 6.606584 5 0 ## 6 F5 9.978060 6 0 ## 7 F5 9.802149 7 0 ## 8 F5 8.180505 8 0 ## 9 F5 8.143977 9 0 ## 10 F5 8.471664 10 0 ## # ... with 27,574,262 more rows
epoch_zero <- event_table[which(event_table$event_type == 100),]$event_onset epoched_data <- map(epoch_zero, ~(. + samps)) %>% map_df(~data.frame(Samp_No = ., Time = samps/1024), .id = "epoch_no") %>% left_join(filt_dat)
## Joining, by = "Samp_No"
## epoch_no Samp_No Time electrode filt_amp Status ## 1 1 7194 -0.2001953 F5 -1.1852892 0 ## 2 1 7194 -0.2001953 FT7 1.0523597 0 ## 3 1 7194 -0.2001953 FC1 -1.5428764 0 ## 4 1 7194 -0.2001953 TP7 0.4129892 0 ## 5 1 7194 -0.2001953 CP5 -1.6642918 0 ## 6 1 7194 -0.2001953 CP1 3.0524871 0
We now have an epoched dataset, time-locked to our trigger of interest.
ERPs <- epoched_data %>% filter(!grepl("^E",electrode)) %>% group_by(electrode,Time) %>% summarise(amplitude = mean(filt_amp)) ggplot(ERPs, aes(x = Time, y = amplitude, colour = electrode)) + geom_line()
And here is a topography averaged from 150ms to 180ms after stimulus onset, produced using the topoplot() function from my nascent eegUtils package.
## Warning: replacing previous import 'scales::viridis_pal' by ## 'viridis::viridis_pal' when loading 'eegUtils'
filter(ERPs, Time >= .150 & Time <= .180) %>% topoplot()
## Adding standard electrode locations...
There are still, of course, more things we’d like to do. Normally we’d be doing some kind of artefact rejection - either rejecting trials with nasty artefacts manually or using some kind of algorithm such as FASTER or SCADS, or running Independent Component Analysis and using it to remove blinks and other artefact components.
At the moment, you’re totally on your own if trying to do this in R. There are ICA implementations in R but not really tailored to EEG data, and nothing like FASTER or SCADS is out there…yet!